Before being known as Khan, Temujin spent many years uniting Turkic-Mongol confederations of Central Asia. Prior to Khan this northern territory consisted of mainly nomadic tribes sharing only a language and culture. Khan effectively unified the people of this territory and provided them with a common identity in what is now called Mongolia. Temujin also created a writing system for the Mongolian language based on existing Uyghyr script (a descendant of the Sogdian alphabet).
However, in his later years, Khan is best known as a ruthless conqueror, invading and conquering Western Xia in northern China, and Khwarezmid Empire in Persia, followed by future spread of the Mongol Empire as far west as Germany. He is recognized as one of the most influential people in history and his legacy includes centuries of Eurasian rule.
Due to the expansive and prolonged rule of Khan, his sons, and his grandsons in Asia and Europe in the Mongol Empire, modern day DNA studies have indicated that a specific Y-chromosomal lineage with patterns suggesting that it originated from Mongolia about 1000 years ago, and this marker can now be found in 8% of the men in a large region of Asia and parts of Europe. It is proposed that this lineage is carried by Genghis Khan and is carried by male line descendants of Genghis Khan.
Nasidze I, Quinque D, Dupanloup I, Cordaux R, Kokshunova L, Stoneking M.
Genetic evidence for the Mongolian ancestry of Kalmyks.
Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2005 Dec;128(4):846-54.
The Kalmyks are an ethnic group along the lower Volga River in Russia who are thought to have migrated there from Mongolia about 300 years ago. To investigate their origins, we studied mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation in 99 Kalmyks. Both mtDNA HV1 sequences and Y-chromosome SNP haplogroups indicate a close relationship of Kalmyks with Mongolians. In addition, genetic diversity for both mtDNA and the Y chromosome are comparable in Kalmyks, Mongolians, and other Central Asian groups, indicating that the Kalmyk migration was not associated with a substantial bottleneck. The so-called "Genghis Khan" Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype was found in high frequency (31.3%) among Kalmyks, further supporting a strong genetic connection between Kalmyks and Mongolians. Genetic analyses of even recent, relatively well-documented migrations such as of the Kalmyks can therefore lead to new insights concerning such migrations. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Zerjal T, Xue Y, Bertorelle G, Wells RS, Bao W, Zhu S, Qamar R, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Fu S, Li P, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Xu J, Shu Q, Du R, Yang H, Hurles ME, Robinson E, Gerelsaikhan T, Dashnyam B, Mehdi SQ, Tyler-Smith C.
The genetic legacy of the Mongols.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Mar;72(3):717-21. Epub 2003 Jan 17.
Abstract: We have identified a Y-chromosomal lineage with several unusual features. It was found in 16 populations throughout a large region of Asia, stretching from the Pacific to the Caspian Sea, and was present at high frequency: approximately 8% of the men in this region carry it, and it thus makes up approximately 0.5% of the world total. The pattern of variation within the lineage suggested that it originated in Mongolia approximately 1,000 years ago. Such a rapid spread cannot have occurred by chance; it must have been a result of selection. The lineage is carried by likely male-line descendants of Genghis Khan, and we therefore propose that it has spread by a novel form of social selection resulting from their behavior.
Qamar R, Ayub Q, Mohyuddin A, Helgason A, Mazhar K, Mansoor A, Zerjal T, Tyler-Smith C, Mehdi SQ.
Y-chromosomal DNA variation in Pakistan.
Am J Hum Genet. 2002 May;70(5):1107-24. Epub 2002 Mar 15.
Biomedical and Genetic Engineering Division, Dr. A. Q. Khan Research Laboratories, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Abstract: Eighteen binary polymorphisms and 16 multiallelic, short-tandem-repeat (STR) loci from the nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome were typed in 718 male subjects belonging to 12 ethnic groups of Pakistan. These identified 11 stable haplogroups and 503 combination binary marker/STR haplotypes. Haplogroup frequencies were generally similar to those in neighboring geographical areas, and the Pakistani populations speaking a language isolate (the Burushos), a Dravidian language (the Brahui), or a Sino-Tibetan language (the Balti) resembled the Indo-European-speaking majority. Nevertheless, median-joining networks of haplotypes revealed considerable substructuring of Y variation within Pakistan, with many populations showing distinct clusters of haplotypes. These patterns can be accounted for by a common pool of Y lineages, with substantial isolation between populations and drift in the smaller ones. Few comparative genetic or historical data are available for most populations, but the results can be compared with oral traditions about origins. The Y data support the well-established origin of the Parsis in Iran, the suggested descent of the Hazaras from Genghis Khan's army, and the origin of the Negroid Makrani in Africa, but do not support traditions of Tibetan, Syrian, Greek, or Jewish origins for other populations.